Australia’s rich history is not limited to stunning landscapes and indigenous culture. The nation has a darker side, shaped by its convict past. Between 1788 and 1868, over 160,000 convicts were transported to Australia, and their stories have left a lasting imprint on the country. Today, you can walk in the footsteps of these early settlers by visiting historical convict sites across the nation. We’ll explore 27 such sites that provide a fascinating glimpse into Australia’s turbulent history.
Best Historical Sites to Visit in Tasmania
Tasmania, known for its stunning natural landscapes, holds a unique place in Australian history as a former penal colony. The island’s rugged beauty contrasts with its dark past, making it a compelling destination for those interested in exploring Australia’s convict heritage. With so many sites, scattered across the entire small island state, doing this as a historical road trip is ideal. You can organise a Tasmania campervan hire from either Hobart or Launceston.
1. Port Arthur, Tasmania
Port Arthur stands as one of Australia’s most iconic convict sites. Set against a backdrop of stunning coastal cliffs and lush greenery, this site is a testament to the grim conditions endured by convicts. Explore the Penitentiary, the Separate Prison, and the eerie Isle of the Dead to gain insights into the harsh penal system.
2. Cascades Female Factory, Tasmania
Delve into the stories of female convicts at the Cascades Female Factory in Hobart. Explore the site’s three yards, including the Matron’s Quarters and the Women’s Factory, where the lives of women convicts are brought to life.
3. Coal Mines Historic Site, Tasmania
Located on the Tasman Peninsula, this site preserves the remnants of coal mines worked by convicts. The scenic coastal setting juxtaposes the hardships endured by those who worked here.
4. Darlington Probation Station, Maria Island, Tasmania
Maria Island’s stunning natural beauty contrasts with its convict history. The Darlington Probation Station provides insight into the probation system and the lives of convicts who were sent here to reform.
5. Sarah Island Penal Settlement, Tasmania
Sarah Island, accessible by boat, is a place of isolation and harsh punishment. Explore the ruins and hear tales of daring escapes and life on this remote outpost.
6. Willow Court, New Norfolk, Tasmania
Willow Court, once a mental asylum, also has ties to the convict era. Take a guided tour to learn about the various uses of the site and the convicts who contributed to its history.
7. Richmond Gaol, Tasmania
Richmond Gaol is a well-preserved example of early prison architecture, with its sandstone walls and cramped cells. Visit to learn about the lives of those who were incarcerated here.
8. Ross Bridge, Tasmania
Ross Bridge is a marvel of convict craftsmanship. Its intricate stone carvings and arches are a testament to the skill of the convict stonemasons who built it.
9. Brickendon and Woolmers Estates, Tasmania
These estates provide insight into early colonial life, showcasing the use of convict labor in farming and the preservation of heritage buildings.
10. Launceston Gaol, Tasmania
Launceston Gaol is a well-preserved example of early prison architecture, with its imposing stone walls and cells. Guided tours provide a deeper understanding of its history.
Best Historical Sites to Visit in New South Wales
New South Wales was at the forefront of Australia’s convict era. From the bustling streets of Sydney to the picturesque landscapes of regional towns, this state bears witness to the struggles and triumphs of convicts and early settlers.
1. Cockatoo Island, New South Wales
Situated in Sydney Harbour, Cockatoo Island’s history as a reformatory school and later a prison is fascinating. Explore the industrial remnants, the sandstone buildings, and the haunting jail cells.
2. Old Dubbo Gaol, New South Wales
Step back in time at the Old Dubbo Gaol, which offers interactive exhibits and a glimpse into daily life for both convicts and wardens during the 19th century.
2. Trial Bay Gaol, New South Wales
Overlooking the tranquil waters of Trial Bay, this gaol is a stark contrast to its surroundings. Explore the cells, exercise yards, and the history of its construction by prisoners.
3. Port Macquarie Historic Courthouse, New South Wales
Visit the historic courthouse in Port Macquarie to gain insights into the legal system during the convict era. The beautifully preserved building transports visitors back to colonial times.
4. The Tench, Penrith, New South Wales
The Tench is a collection of historic buildings that provide a glimpse into the early days of European settlement in the Penrith region. Explore the cottages and imagine life during the early colonial period.
5. The Lock-Up, Newcastle, New South Wales
The Lock-Up in Newcastle was a former police station and lock-up. Today, it is a contemporary art space, offering a unique blend of history and culture.
6. Newington Armory, Sydney, New South Wales
Once an explosives factory, Newington Armory now hosts cultural events and outdoor activities. Its convict heritage is a fascinating backdrop to contemporary experiences.
1. Sydney’s Hyde Park Barracks, New South Wales
This UNESCO-listed barracks offers an immersive experience into the lives of convicts who lived and worked here. The museum showcases artifacts, stories, and reconstructed sleeping quarters that transport visitors back in time.
Best Historical Sites to Visit in Queensland
Known for its tropical landscapes and vibrant cities, Queensland also holds a hidden chapter of convict history. While it may not be as synonymous with convict heritage as some other states, Queensland offers a unique perspective on the penal system’s expansion across Australia.
1. Moreton Bay Convict Settlement, Queensland
The ruins on St. Helena Island are a poignant reminder of the brutal conditions that convicts endured in Queensland. Guided tours offer insights into daily life and punishments.
Best Historical Sites to Visit in Victoria
Victoria has a multifaceted history that includes its share of convict heritage. From the cells of Old Melbourne Gaol, where some of Australia’s most notorious criminals were held, to the eerie corridors of J Ward, a former prison for the criminally insane, Victoria’s convict sites offer a unique blend of history and intrigue.
1. Old Melbourne Gaol, Victoria
Explore the cells, the gallows, and the chilling death masks of some of Australia’s most notorious criminals at Old Melbourne Gaol. This site brings the stories of convicts and bushrangers to life.
2. J Ward, Ararat, Victoria
J Ward was a prison for the criminally insane. Today, it serves as a museum, shedding light on the eerie history of this institution and the troubled individuals who were confined here.
3. Old Beechworth Gaol, Victoria
This gaol in Beechworth offers a captivating experience for visitors interested in the convict era. Explore the cells and learn about the stories of the prisoners who were held here.
4. Old Castlemaine Gaol, Victoria
The Old Castlemaine Gaol is a fascinating place to learn about the lives of both convicts and wardens during the 19th century. Explore the cells, exercise yards, and the gallows.
Best Historical Sites to Visit in South Australia
While it was not a primary destination for transported convicts, South Australia played a role in the broader story of the penal system.
1. Adelaide Gaol, South Australia
Adelaide Gaol, one of South Australia’s oldest public buildings, offers an immersive experience of life inside a 19th-century prison. Explore the cells, exercise yards, and museum exhibits.
Best Historical Sites to Visit in Western Australia
Western Australia’s rugged coastline and vast terrains conceal a captivating chapter of convict history. Pick up a Perth campervan hire and visit these sites to unravel the convict heritage of Western Australia; a tale of isolation, resilience, and transformation.
1. Fremantle Prison, Western Australia
A looming limestone structure, Fremantle Prison paints a vivid picture of convict life. Tours take you through the cells, exercise yards, and the eerie underground tunnels where prisoners toiled.
2. The Round House, Fremantle, Western Australia
The Round House is one of Western Australia’s oldest buildings and served various functions, including as a prison and customs house. Explore its unique architecture and history.
3. Rottnest Island, Western Australia
Rottnest Island, located off the coast of Western Australia, is another site with a dark convict past. Originally used as an Aboriginal penal colony, it later became a prison for colonial convicts. Visitors to Rottnest Island can explore the remains of the former prison, including cells and guard towers, while also enjoying the island’s stunning beaches and unique wildlife, including the famous quokka. It’s a place where history and natural beauty converge, offering a compelling glimpse into Australia’s colonial history.
These 27 historical convict sites in Australia provide a captivating journey into the nation’s dark past. By exploring these destinations, you not only gain a deeper understanding of the challenges faced by early settlers but also appreciate the enduring impact of the convict era on Australian society. Each site offers a unique perspective on this period, from the harshness of life in Port Arthur to the remote isolation of Norfolk Island. Whether you’re interested in architecture, history, or simply exploring the stories of those who lived through this time, these sites are a must-visit for a rich and immersive experience of Australia’s convict history.